What are Examiners Looking for in a Thesis? Chapter 3 should be written like a "recipe" so that someone who wants to replicate or adopt your methodology can do so with minimum confusion.
Quantitative Methodologies One key aspect of research is measurement. If we want to know if Dutch men are taller than Chinese men, then we can measure them and find out. One tradition within social science research is to measure things.
This is based upon a belief that things can be measured, and measured reliably.
Of course, some people disagree with this, arguing that certain aspects of human behaviour and experience cannot be objectively measured.
These people adopt a qualitative approach to research, more of which in the next chapter. For now, we will focus on quantitative approaches. Making Measurements So, what kind of measurements can we make? First of all, we can make physical measurements. Examples would include the height or width of something, or how much it weighs.
We might even wish to include measuring age in this category. In the first case we use observations, and measure the number of times something occurs or is observed, as the observer may miss things.
In the second case, we might use scales. Some social scientists claim that we can also measure how much we love someone, or how strongly we feel about an event!
The important thing about a measurement is that it is reliable and valid.
To be reliable means that if we measure the same thing again on another day or if another person takes the measurementthen we obtain the same result. Valid means that it measures what it purports to measure.
Whilst there are statistical techniques for checking reliability, validity is harder to assess. Most of the time you will assess face validity, i. A concept that you need to be familiar with is levels of measurement.
There are 4 different levels: An example would be placing things into categories based upon observations. If you observe that there are 7 cows in the field, of which 3 are spotted and 4 are plain coloured, then you have used a nominal measurement.
All we know about any one cow is into which category it falls. We do not know how many spots it has unless it is in the plain category, of course. This means that we know about the order of things, but not the differences between them.
As an example, let us consider measuring performance in a metre sprint race. An ordinal measurement would be who came 1st, 2nd, 3rd and so on.
We can rank the runners in terms of their performance, but we do not know how much faster the gold-medal winner was than the silver-medal winner. Here we have some information about the gap between two scores or measurements.
Consider the temperature of a room. As with the ordinal measurement, we know which room is the warmest, and which the coldest — we can rank the rooms in order of temperature. This is very similar to interval measurement, with only one difference. With a ratio scale, a score of 0 means the absence of something.
So measuring something using a Celsius C scale is an interval measurement, and not ratio. A weight scale using grammes would be ratio, as 0 gm indicates a complete lack of weight.Quantitative methodologies include experiments, observation and structured interviews. Although there are others, these three are those you are most likely to employ in a quantitative dissertation, so we will focus upon them here.
Quantitative research is statistical: it has numbers attached to it, like averages, percentages or quotas. Qualitative research uses non-statistical methods.
For example, you might perform a study and find that 50% of a district’s students dislike their teachers. This chapter discussed the research methodology of the study and described the research design, population, sample, data-collection instrument and ethical .
Quantitative research, is defined as a the systematic investigation of phenomena by gathering quantifiable data and performing statistical, mathematical or computational techniques.
Learn more about quantitative research methods along with types and examples, characteristics and advantages. In natural sciences and social sciences, quantitative research is the systematic empirical investigation of observable phenomena via statistical, mathematical, or computational techniques.
The objective of quantitative research is to develop and employ mathematical models, theories, and hypotheses pertaining to phenomena. Quantitative research for instance would shed light on whether a renovation or re-branding would entice women customers to patronize the store, by selecting a broader sample and generalizing the findings based on established market trends.