Greener production of biodiesel by enzymatic transesterification. Abstract Biodiesel has provided an eco-friendly solution to fuel crisis, as it is renewable, biodegradable and a non-toxic fuel that can be easily produced through enzymatic transesterification of vegetable oils and animal fats. Enzymatic production of biodiesel has many advantages over the conventional methods as high yields can be obtained at low reaction temperatures with easy recovery of glycerol. Microbial lipases are powerful biocatalysts for industrial applications including biodiesel production at lower costs due to its potential in hydrolyzing waste industrial materials.
Comment Nov 2, - http: Particle Size Distribution Moisture Content, and. Via Ifo, Ogun State, Nigeria. This article gives an overview of the in-situ transesterification, the parameters that have a significant effect on this process, optimization methodologies, as well as advantages and disadvantages of the in-situ technique.
This will serve as database information for researchers to be in biodiesel production and stake holders.
Rudolf Diesel tested peanut oil as fuel for his engine for the first time on August 10, Shay, In the s and s vegetable oils were used as diesel fuels from time to time, usually only in emergencies. However, petroleum fractions that were compatible with the diesel engine became less expensive than vegetable oils, so vegetable oil-based fuels were not commercially viable.
Reports have shown that vegetable oils are a possible alternative fuel for diesel engine. However, problems such as injector coking, thickening of lubricants, and oils deposits were recorded on extended operation of diesel engine fuelled with neat or straight The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology http: To overcome these constraints, the chemical and physical process like pyrolysis, micro emulsification, and transesterification were especially developed Ma and Hanna, ; Vicente et al.
A diesel engine could be re-engineered to utilize pure biodiesel oil but this has not yet happened Srivastara and Prasad, Until such an engine become widely available, biodiesel refineries convert vegetable oil into an ester, which is similar to diesel fuel, and makes biodiesel usable in the current diesel engines on the market.
However, the aforementioned method of reducing viscosity has a drawback. The processes were too expensive for modest through puts, because they were very energy-intensive Ma and Hanna, November Fall Owing to the high market price of edible vegetable oils, conventional transesterification as a means of producing biodiesel is not profitable.
To overcome these problems, a myriad of inedible oils are being investigated. The focus of current research is to introduce new transesterification. This technique has to do with direct transesterification of ground oil-bearing seeds with alcohol.
This review critically discusses the in situ transesterification process, optimization methodologies, and its advantages as well as disadvantages.
In-situ transesterification is an alternative method of producing ester transport fuels. The process is directed at oil seeds rather than pre-extracted oil, as in conventional transesterification.
In-situ transesterification is the direct transesterification of ground oil bearing materials instead of purified oils with alcohol and catalyst, to produce alkyl fatty acid esters. The efficiency or yield of in-situ transesterification is defined as the percentage of biodiesel—rich phase over oil content in raw material which is determined by hexane soxhlet extraction.
Purity is defined as the percentage of methyl esters in product obtained as the percentage of methyl esters in product obtained from the purification stage.
This percentage is mostly obtained from a gas chromatogram result. In-situ transesterification and conventional processing are depicted below. The Pacific Journal of Science and Technology http: November Fall It can be seen from Figure 1 that in situ transesterification has fewer steps than conventional processing.
The crushing and solvent extraction steps that are needed in the conventional process are not employed in the insitu transesterification process. Core emphasized that the possibility of producing biodiesel via in-situ transesterification can only be materialized once the process as a whole has been fully characterized.
The fatty acid profiles of the oils produced by these materials vary substantially. Hence, process parameters differ and these influence biodiesel properties such as cetane number and cold filter plugging point Ramos et al. The in-situ technique can be applied to almost any oil bearing material Hass et al.
Catalyst It was reported Kildiran et al. Short—chain alcohols, particularly methanol, are poor solvents for lipids. Acid or alkali catalyst in in-situ transesterification help to breaks the cell walls of oil seeds, thereby facilitating methanol to access the oil in cotyledon cells.
The conversion of oil to methyl esters was typically very high when using methanol and sodium hydroxide.
High yields of conversion were achieved by the following researchers.Background. Biodiesel is a renewable fuel that can be synthesized from edible, non-edible and waste oils. Due to diminishing petroleum reserves, vegetable oils have attracted attention as a potential renewable source for the production of alternatives to petroleum-based diesel fuel.
Enzymatic transesterification for biodiesel production of the cost of the enzyme can be overcome by using efficient production process for enzyme and using.
The use the enzyme lipase as a biocatalyst for the transesterification reaction step in biodiesel production has been extensively investigated. Lipase is produced by all living organisms and can be used intracellularly or extracellularly. OILS TRANSESTERIFICATION ENZYME SEPARATION UPPER PHASE this review presents critical analysis of the methods reported which can contribute to the global eﬀort of industrial implementation of the enzymatic production of biodiesel in the near future.
A two-step enzymatic transesterification process in a solvent-free system has been developed as a novel approach to the production of biodiesel using acid oil from rice bran oil soapstock.
Ganesan, D, Rajendran, A & Thangavelu, V , ' An overview on the recent advances in the transesterification of vegetable oils for biodiesel production using chemical and biocatalysts ' Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, vol.
8, no. 4, pp.