Obelisk of AksumEthiopia There were a number of regional empires during this period.
They did not think to use them. The Chinese used natural gas for cooking and heating homes, but never for machines.
The fact that you're saying the Arabs were "safeguarding" knowledge is evidence it went unused for centuries. The question is why.
Skirting around the question does not invalidate it. They prolifically copied manuscripts and actively made discoveries and innovations. This is a simple question of threshold and access to knowledge. Unfortunately a perfect answer could be almost limitless. Simply put, it took a lot of development across various fields of knowledge to understand how to make an efficient energy generator to drive automation.
I certainly didn't mean to invalidate your question or skirt around it. I think the key concept you are missing in your response is that of efficient use of energy.
It's HOW you burn the fuel! The real change of the industrial revolution IMO is freeing up more people from producing food than could originally be achieved with local surpluses, getting those people to create valuable objects and then creating wealth by selling these objects everywhere.
Grain traveled long distance, as did spice, salt, livestock, olive oil, textiles, etc. The silk road linked Rome and China, it was not all local at all. Roman leadership was autocratic but trade was very much a free market. Lastly it is true that Rome was largely a consumer city, but other cities in the empire were producers.
The industrial revolution only went to cities because it was freed from having to be near water power by efficient harnessing of combustion. Namely, there needs to be a large class of people who must purchase the consumer goods and must sell their labor to survive.
This is the basis of production and of demand. We got a working class in England first because England, by early modern times, was a mostly yeoman small farmer society in decline. Other areas had serfs still e.
Russia or a yeomanry in ascent like France. The small farmers were losing their land indeed, made possible by technological changes but in actuality due to the enclosures and thus their ability to re-produce themselves from their own land.
They had to move to urban areas and take up crafts to make money to then buy the goods to survive which they used to be able to produce themselves. Thus we have a basis of urban production a proletariat and a basis of demand a class without the means of production to produce for themselvesThe empire ends with a pull out.
Not, as many supposed a few years ago, from Iraq. There, as well as in Afghanistan, we are mulishly staying the course, come what may, trapped in the biggest of all the "too-big-to-fail" boondoggles. Sahadeo’s article examines Julian Go’s Patterns of Empire from the viewpoint of a historian of Russia’s southern borderlands of the Caucasus and Central Asia.
Go offers a pathway for scholars of other expansionist regimes, including the tsarist state and the Soviet Union, to break down exclusivist mythologies and think beyond the nation. Especially in a Heroic Fantasy setting, other types of empires abound, often based on the Holy Roman Empire (and occasionally a more sympathetic take on the actual Roman, British, or Chinese Empires).
Britain, Canada, Persia, the Ottoman Empire, Sweden and Denmark. Eastern theatre: The Russians try to sue for peace, but the Persians do not respond and instead withdraw.
The history of the world, in common parlance, is the history of humanity (or human history), as determined from archaeology, anthropology, genetics, linguistics, and other disciplines; and, for periods since the invention of writing, from recorded history and from secondary sources and studies.
Maps of Vast Empires That No Longer Exist The Austro-Hungarian Empire (or Austria-Hungary, Find this Pin and more on Maps by JWSmythe. Austria-Hungary was a Central power during WWI along with the main central power of Germany.