Trade The audience for this presentation is a group of managers from American companies.
For the business world, there are no boundaries or borders. Companies are always moving to new places and finding new business opportunities, new business partners. And in this search, they are often expanding their business across countries.
Although, companies are adopting an international approach and partnering with other companies across borders, in this process they have to cope with the cultural differences of different countries.
Talking about American and Japanese business culture, there are huge differences between the two. If an American businessman decides to do with business with any Japanese company, he will have to plan and prepare for his meeting extensively.
GLOBE Study was able to establish nine cultural dimensions which allowed capturing the differences and similarities between different societies and cultures in the basic nature of it, which consists of behaviours and artefacts, different beliefs and values a particular society have, interpreting patterns and assumptions.
A is in Anglo cluster whereas Japan is in Confucian cluster and differences become greater as the distance between clusters increase. Anglo and Confucian cultures are almost on the opposite sides. This means they hardly share similarities in context of dimensions given by Hofstede. Power distance is first and recent trends suggest that Japan has just now started making its place near the world average in power distance for example victory of the democratic party of Japan in the elections of as they vowed to diminish the power of bureaucrats which makes it evident that they are becoming less tolerant of the power distance but still they have a long way to go.
Americans on the other hand always had a low power distance as the Anglo cluster ranks high in participative approach but Confucian is at the bottom before Middle East.
Recent trend suggests that the relationships between employee and employer in Japan are becoming strained but collectivism is still more dominant. The hierarchal structures of American organizations are designed for convenience and to make superiors accessible. Managers have high dependency on individual employees for their expertise.
High ranking of Japan in masculinity also indicates that the Japanese society is driven by competition and achievement. Low score on masculinity or being placed on or close to femininity end means that the dominant values in particular society are caring for others and being more concerned about quality of life.
Americans ranked just slightly above the middle on masculinity which means that distance between these two cultures in context of this dimension is considerable. Next dimension is uncertainty avoidance.
Talking about Japanese, generally they have tendency to avoid uncertainty but as in past years some manufacturers left Japan and this trend affected the tolerance for uncertainty in work environment.
If trend continues it can significantly reduce the number of people who are loyal to the employer and can flourish the entrepreneurial trends which are commonly seen in United States as it will affect the number of job opportunities available domestically.
Students after graduation will face immense competition and will probably have one shot at employment or they will be frozen out of the job market.
|Japan's Universal and Affordable Health Care: Lessons for the United States?||Japanese Japanese Japanese language study at Agnes Scott enables students to understand and speak the language and learn the history, social practices and values of Japanese culture. The study of Japanese is important to students who wish to attend graduate school in Asian Studies or pursue careers in international business.|
United States is more risk taking society but currently it had also started to lean toward uncertainty avoidance because of some different trends, for example decline of the stock market and recent recession period of plus the housing bubble bust. All these factors made people to seek for security and less risky investment opportunities.
Another factor which might have effected is the treat they have from other emerging nations which are economically becoming more powerful and it can cause Americans to take more defensive stance and to look for more stable grounds rather than being risk taking society. If we talk about normative societies most of the people require of have a strong desire to have an explanation but in pragmatic societies, people might not require explanation for everything because they consider it almost impossible that a person can fully understand the phenomena around them because of the complexity of life.
Americans have tendency to check and analyse the information they receive for validity. This trend in culture makes us consider most of the Americans as non-pragmatic but the fact that they are very practical should not be confused. Japanese culture is more of a high context culture. In Japanese business culture, they have more sense of belonging i.
They are more focused towards building long term relationships. Japanese are more relationship oriented rather than task oriented. They are more focused on communicated understanding rather than formal information.
On the other hand, American culture is kind of a low context culture. It is more oriented towards rules and tasks. Tasks are given more importance than relationships.
Relationships are usually short-term dependant on the tasks. Now as we have established the base and have the general understanding about the differences and similarities among both cultures we can move forward to the negotiation process between American and Japanese Managers.
When an American manager plans on doing business and negotiating with a Japanese manager, the American manager of course has to be more prepared compared to the Japanese.COUNTRY PROFILE: JAPAN grupobittia.comment * Japan's government is a democratic parliamentary government, with a constitutional monarchy as the head of state.
Japan's Imperial role is essentially only as a figurehead now, and the Emperor has no defined governmental power. Now According to GLOBE’s country clusters U.S.A is in Anglo cluster whereas Japan is in Confucian cluster and differences become greater as the distance between clusters increase.
Anglo and Confucian cultures are almost on the opposite sides. Part 1- Country Profile I.
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