Health Status and Health Care Access of Farm and Rural Populationsstates that both farm and rural populations experience lower access to health care along the dimensions of affordability, proximity, and quality, compared with their nonfarm and urban counterparts. Nonmetropolitan households are more likely to report that the cost of healthcare limits their ability to receive medical care. In more remote counties, patients have to travel long distances for specialized treatment. These patients may substitute local primary care providers for specialists or they may decide to postpone or forego care from a specialist due to the burdens of cost and long travel times.
Term[ edit ] A term used in Classical and Hellenistic Greece for oppressive popular rule was ochlocracy "mob rule". Tyranny meant rule by one man whether undesirable or not. While James Madison referred to the same idea as "the violence of majority faction" in The Federalist Papersfor example Federalist 10the phrase "tyranny of the majority" was used by John Adams in The Federalist Papers and the phrase in translation is used at least once in the first sequel to Human, All Too Human One of the original concerns about direct democracy is the potential it has to allow a majority of voters to trample the rights of minorities.
Many still worry that the process can be used to harm gays and lesbians as well as ethnic, linguistic, and religious minorities.
Recent scholarly research shows that the initiative process is sometimes prone to produce laws that disadvantage relatively powerless minorities State and local ballot initiatives have been used to undo policies — such as school desegregation, protections against job and housing discrimination, and affirmative action — that minorities have secured from legislatures.
Olson argues that when the benefits of political action e. Narrow groups, especially those who can reward active participation to their group goals, might therefore be able to dominate or distort political process, a process studied in public choice theory.
Vote trading[ edit ] Anti-federalists of public choice theory point out that vote trading can protect minority interests from majorities in representative democratic bodies such as legislatures. Relevant discussion may be found on Talk: Tyranny of the majority.
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June Learn how and when to remove this template message A collective decision of 13 voters in a deliberative assembly. X option wins, because it has a majority more than half.
The "no tyranny" and "tyranny" situations can be characterizated in any simple democratic decision-making context, as a deliberative assembly.
Abandonment of rationality[ edit ] Herbert Spencerin "The Right to Ignore the State"pointed the problem with the following example  Suppose, for the sake of argument, that, struck by some Malthusian panica legislature duly representing public opinion were to enact that all children born during the next ten years should be drowned.
Does anyone think such an enactment would be warrantable? If not, there is evidently a limit to the power of a majority. Usual no-tyranny scenario[ edit ] Suppose a deliberative assembly of a building condominium with 13 voters, deciding, with majority rule, about "X or Y", X: Suppose that the final result is "8 votes for X and 5 votes for Y", so 8, as a majority, blue wins.
As collectively 13 voters the decision is legitimate. It is a centralized decision about all common use rooms, "one color for all rooms", and it is also legitimate. Voters have some arguments against "each room with its color", rationalizing the centralization: Federated centralization excess[ edit ] Centralization excess is the most usual case.
Suppose that each floor has some kind of local governance, so in some aspects the condominium is a " federation of floors". Suppose that only on the third floor the majority of residents manifested some preference to "each floor with different color" style, and all of the third floor residents likes the red color.
The cost difference, to purchase another color for one floor, is not significant when compared with the condominium contributions. In this conditions some tyranny perception arrives, and the subsidiarity principle can be used to contest the central decision.
Tyranny emerging[ edit ] Minority and tyranny characterized: In the above no-tyranny scenariosuppose no floor federation, but only a room with some local governance. Suppose that the gym room is not used by all, but there is a "community" of regulars, there is a grouping of voters by its activity as speed-cyclists illustrated as spiked hairthat have the gym room key for some activities on Sundays.
They are acting collectively to preserve the gym room for a local cyclists group. In this situation the following facts hold: There is a subset of voters and some collective actionuniting them, making them a cohesive group. There is some centralization a general assembly and some central decision over local decision: So it is a central decision.
The subsidiarity principle can be applied:Affirmative action policies are those in which an institution or organization actively engages in efforts to improve opportunities for historically excluded groups in American society. Affirmative action policies often focus on employment and education.
In institutions of higher education. Nov 20, · Introduction. Define and describe the health issue or problem your paper is about.
Give a general overview of the health issue or problem in the U.S. What did statistics say about the health issue or problem as it relates to minorities?
(5 points) Causes of the health issue or problem.
|Introduction to Organizing||Free Press Critical for Free, Democratic Society An essay from the prestigious journal, Columbia Journalism Reviewnotes the crucial role of free media and the need for public education in society to maintain democracy: But the founders knew that a free press would be worth little if the people could not read it, so public education became one of the great obsessions of the leaders of the early republic.|
Created in , the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF or Task Force) is an independent group of national experts in prevention and evidence-based medicine that works to improve the health of all Americans by making evidence-based recommendations about clinical preventive services such as screenings, counseling services, or preventive medications.
Environmental Valuation and the Hawaiian Economy: Introduction and Executive Summary T comes at the expense of environmental degradation. Pollution, for example, is a nonmarket good (albeit one with a negative value), and its omission from income accounts places too much value.
There are so many racial minority groups in America that some people question whether "minority" is the appropriate term to describe people of color in the United States. But just because the U.S.
is known as a melting pot or, more recently, as a salad bowl, doesn’t mean that Americans are as familiar with the cultural groups in their country as they should be.
American Nursing: An Introduction to the Past Professional nursing holds a unique place in the American health care system. As members of the largest health care profession, the nation’s million nurses work in diverse settings and fields and are frontline providers of health care services.